2013 Submitted Papers
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Australia's Engagement with its 'Near Abroad': A Change of Direction under the Rudd Labor Government (2007- )?
Ayatollah Khamenei or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb
This paper considers the application of Deterrence Theories to the Iranian nuclear agenda. Given the international community currently perceives Tehran to be seeking nuclear weapons, it is imperative to consider the implications of such action. Whilst not considering the veracity of either Iranian anti-nuclear rhetoric or the international community’s assertion of Iranian desires to achieve Nuclear Weapon State (NWS) status, this paper questions the application of Cold War theories of deterrence to the Middle East in the 21st century. Integral to theories of deterrence is the principle of rationality: Despite ideological differences between the US and USSR, both sides viewed each other as rational actors. Whilst not questioning whether Iranian foreign policy is pragmatic or irrational, this paper questions if deterrence can work if either side holds the other to be irrational. Numerous theories existed during the Cold War that attempted to explain the behaviour of actors engaged in a nuclear stand-off. In addition to application of Deterrence Theories in explaining Iran’s behaviour and nuclear balance within the Middle East, it must be questioned to what extent a religious dimension affects a NWS’s behaviour, with specific regard to the question of rationality.
Between the Theory and Policy: Transnational Networks for Environmental Governance in East Asia
The aim of this paper is to identify the interplay between transnational actors loosely connected under particular international institutions in East Asia. Most approaches to environmental governance in this area are not organized through formal international treaties (one exception is the ASEAN Haze Agreement) but through informal international frameworks such as the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET) and the Water Environment Partnership in Asia (WEPA). This paper discusses the reason why international cooperative frameworks on most environmental issues are steered by network-based cooperation, particularly in East Asia. It will also examine what this tendency implies for approaches to environmental governance. In order to answer the research questions, theoretical frameworks of network analysis which have been recently discussed in the literature of global governance theory are employed for each case study of the above networks and for comparison between them. The analysis will reveal the differences in the formation and advancement of networks, including degree of openness and scale of connectivity to other frameworks.